LEDs have been around for a long time, and we have been aware of their capabilities. LED technology had a role in the creation of solid-state transistors, which permitted the landing of an astronaut on the moon and the invention of portable AM radios, among other accomplishments.
An unnamed young scientist working for General Electric in the early 1960s came up with the idea for LEDs. They were originally used as indicator lights on circuit boards, and they immediately developed a reputation for being long-lasting and energy efficient. A large number of municipalities used the second generation of LEDs, which became available in the 1980s and 1990s, to replace incandescent streetlight bulbs. Some people began experimenting with using them in place of fluorescent lights on outdoor signs after hearing about them from a friend.
The light-emitting diode (LED) is the most energy-efficient and rapidly growing lighting technology available today (LED). When compared to other types of illumination, premium LED light bulbs are more robust, last longer, and provide the light that is comparable to or better in quality.
LED is an acronym for light-emitting diode, which is a semiconductor that emits light. When it comes to creating light, LED lighting devices are up to 90 percent more efficient than incandescent light bulbs, according to certain studies. What is their mode of operation? A microchip is responsible for the transmission of electrical current, which illuminates the tiny light sources known as LEDs, resulting in the production of visible light. An LED heat sink is used to absorb the heat created by the LEDs, hence preventing performance issues.
Since a diode contains two electrodes (an anode and a cathode), electrical current can only flow in one direction through it (in through the anode and out through the cathode). Diodes are often made of materials such as silicon or selenium, which carry electricity in certain conditions but not in others, depending on the environment (e.g., at certain voltages, current levels, or light intensities).
Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting technology is very energy-efficient, and it has the potential to have a significant impact on the future of lighting in the United States. Household LEDs – especially those with the ENERGY STAR designation – use at least 75 percent less energy and may last up to 25 times longer than incandescent lights in residential settings.
The widespread adoption of LED lighting has the potential to have a large impact on energy savings in the United States. LED lighting is becoming more popular. By 2035, it is predicted that LED lighting will account for most lighting installations, with annual energy savings from LED lighting estimated to approach 569 TWh, which is comparable to the annual energy output of more than 92 1,000 MW power plants.
How Do LED Lights Work?
This is quite easy and inexpensive to manufacture, which explains why there was such enthusiasm when LED lights were originally introduced!
The Technical Details:
LEDs are made of two different kinds of semiconducting material (a p-type and an n-type). Both p-type and n-type materials, colloquially referred to as astringent materials, have been doped (dipped in a chemical termed a “doping agent”) to slightly modify their electrical characteristics relative to their pure, unmodified, or “intrinsic” state (i-type).
The p- and n-type materials are formed by inserting atoms of another element into the original substance. These new atoms take the place of some previously existing atoms, altering the physical and chemical structure in the process. The p-type materials are synthesized utilizing elements (for example, boron) with fewer valence electrons than the intrinsic material (oftentimes silicon). The n-type materials are synthesized utilizing elements (for example, phosphorus) that have a greater number of valence electrons than the intrinsic material (oftentimes silicon). As a result, a p-n junction with fascinating and beneficial features for electrical applications is created. The precise nature of these features is very dependent on the external voltage provided to the circuit (if any) and the direction of current (i.e., which side, the p-type or the n-type, is connected to the positive terminal and which is connected to the negative terminal).
Application of the Technical Details:
Light will be emitted when a light-emitting diode has a voltage source connected to the positive side of the anode and the negative side of the cathode. This is called “forward bias,” and it means that current will flow (and light will be emitted, which is called forward bias). If the positive and negative ends of the voltage source were connected in the opposite way (positive to the cathode and negative to the anode), there would be no current because there would be no way for it to flow (a condition known as reverse bias). Forward bias lets electricity flow through the LED, which makes it shine. Reverse bias stops the LED from getting electricity (at least up until a certain point where it is unable to keep the current at bay – known as the peak inverse voltage – a point that if reached, will irreversibly damage the device).
For people, the most important thing to remember is that LEDs have changed the lighting world for the better, and the practical applications of this technology are almost endless.
How LEDs are Different
Unlike incandescent and compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs, LED lighting is a whole new form of the light source. Significant differences are including:
- Light Source: There are a wide variety of LEDs that may be used to create a wide spectrum of colors. Colorful LEDs may be combined to create white light.
- Direction: Because LEDs produce light only in a specified direction, reflectors and diffusers are no longer necessary. Because of this, LEDs may now be used more effectively in recessed downlights and task lighting, for example. It is necessary to reflect the light for it to reach its intended destination with other lighting types, and up to half of that light may never exit the fixture altogether.
- Heat: LEDs generate a negligible amount of heat. In contrast, incandescent lights emit 90% of their energy as heat, whereas CFLs emit around 80% of their energy as a result.
- Lifetime: LED lighting devices last far longer than other forms of lighting. A high-quality LED bulb may last three to five times as long as a compact fluorescent lamp and thirty times as long as an electric bulb.
LED lighting is already integrated into a broad number of consumer and industrial items, and the list continues to increase. LED technology’s fast advancement has led to greater product availability, enhanced production efficiency, and decreased pricing. The following are some of the most often seen LED product kinds.
Industrial and Commercial Lighting
LEDs are useful for a wide range of industrial applications because of their high efficiency and directed nature. More and more outdoor lighting fixtures, streetlights, parking garage lighting fixtures, walkways, and other outdoor area lights using LEDs are appearing, as are lighting fixtures for refrigerated cases and other cold storage facilities, as well as task lighting fixtures.
LEDs are perfect for illuminating confined areas, such as the countertop where food preparation and recipe reading takes place, due to their tiny size and directed light output. To pick the finest light fixture for your area, it is vital to evaluate goods because of the wide range of light hue and directionality.
Downlights recessed into the ceiling may be seen in many homes and commercial spaces including kitchens, corridors, and restrooms. There are an estimated 600 million recessed downlights across U.S. homes and businesses, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
LED Replacement Bulbs
LED lights may now be used to replace 40, 60, 75, and even 100-Watt incandescent bulbs for a fraction of the cost. It’s critical to check the Lighting Facts Label to ensure that the product is the proper brightness and hue for its intended purpose and location before purchasing.
LED Holiday Lights
When it comes to ornamental LED light strings like Christmas tree lights that use less power than incandescent bulbs, there is no difference. LED lights for the holidays not only save energy but also provide the following benefits:
- Safer: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are safer than incandescent bulbs because they are significantly cooler.
- Sturdier: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are built of epoxy lenses rather than glass, which makes them far more durable.
- Longer lasting: It’s more durable the same LED string might be used for another 40 Christmases.
- Easy to install: a single wall socket may handle as many as 25 LEDs without overheating.
LEDs and Heat
When an LED produces a lot of thermal energy, heat sinks are used to remove the heat from the LED and disperse it into the surrounding environment. Overheating and burnout are prevented by this. The most critical component in the long-term success of an LED is its ability to maintain a stable temperature. When the LEDs are used at a greater temperature, the light will soon deteriorate, and the usable life will be significantly shortened.
Heat sink designs and setups for LED lights are as varied as the items themselves. LED bulbs are now available in a variety of forms and sizes, thanks to improvements in the materials used in their production. All LED products that have received the ENERGY STAR certification have been evaluated to verify that they appropriately manage heat so that the light output is maintained throughout their rated life.
How is LED lighting different than other light sources, such as incandescent and Compact Fluorescent (CFL)?
Bulbs of light LED lighting are distinct from incandescent and fluorescent lighting in several ways. LED lighting is more efficient, adaptable, and durable when constructed properly.
LEDs are “directional” light sources, in contrast to incandescent and compact fluorescent bulbs, which produce light and heat in all directions. This implies that LEDs are more efficient in utilizing light and energy in a wide variety of applications. This does, however, imply that advanced engineering is required to create an LED light bulb that emits light in all directions.
Amber, red, green, and blue is all common LED hues. To create white light, several colors of LEDs are blended or coated with a phosphor substance that changes the light’s hue to the familiar “white” light seen in homes. Phosphor is a yellowish substance that is used to coat certain types of LEDs. Colored LEDs are extensively used as signal and indication lights, such as on a computer’s power button.
A current runs between electrodes at either end of a tube carrying gases in a CFL. This reaction results in the emission of ultraviolet (UV) light and heat. When UV light reaches a phosphor coating on the interior of the bulb, it is converted to visible light. Discover more about CFLs.
Incandescent bulbs generate light by heating a metal filament to a “white” temperature, a condition known as incandesce. Therefore, incandescent light bulbs dissipate 90% of their energy as heat.
LED Light Lifespan:
The longevity of LEDs is easily the most important benefit over conventional lighting options. The typical LED has a life expectancy of 50,000 to 100,000 hours or more. This is about 2-4 times the life of the majority of fluorescent, metal halide, and even sodium vapor lamps. It has a lifespan of more than 40 times that of an incandescent bulb.
Reduced replacement frequency results in two significant benefits: cheaper maintenance expenses in terms of manpower and lowers replacement component prices (because the bulbs simply do not fail for a long time).
LED Energy Efficiency:
LEDs require extremely little electricity in general. When evaluating the energy efficiency of various lighting systems, one of two metrics is used: luminous efficacy or usable lumens. These two values effectively indicate the quantity of light output per watt used by the bulb. Most LED lighting retrofit projects, in our experience, result in a 60-75 percent increase in the total energy efficiency of the facility’s lighting. Savings of up to 90% are possible depending on the current lighting and the LEDs added.
LEDs have swept the traditional lighting industry for a multitude of reasons, not the least of which is their increased lifespans, lower energy usage, and decreased maintenance needs. The DOE projects that by 2030, LED lighting would save 190 terawatt-hours of power per year, or a stunning $15 billion. As the cost of lamps and fixtures continues to decline, an increasing number of facility managers are considering upgrading existing lighting systems to LEDs, owing to their many advantages over previous technologies. The following are eight benefits that every shop owner should consider:
1 | Energy efficiency
When compared to conventional lighting alternatives like incandescent, fluorescent, and halogen, LEDs consume around half the power and save a lot of money on electricity bills, particularly in areas where lights are left on for long periods. As an added benefit, LEDs produce light just in a single direction, as opposed to in all directions with traditional bulbs (because LEDs are mounted on a flat surface, they emit light hemispherically rather than spherically). This capacity of directed lighting decreases the amount of light and energy that is wasted.
2 | Extended life
LEDs, in contrast to incandescent bulbs, do not “burn out” or “fail,” but fade with use. High-quality LEDs are predicted to last 30,000 to 50,000 hours, or more, depending on the lamp or fixture quality. When compared to an incandescent bulb, a compact fluorescent lasts 8,000 to 10,000 hours. It is possible to save money in the long run by switching to LEDs, which have a far longer lifespan than traditional bulbs.
3 | Cold temperature operation
In contrast to fluorescent bulbs, LEDs like the cold. Fluorescent lights need a greater voltage to start at low temperatures, reducing their luminous flux (the apparent power or intensity of light). By contrast, when operational temperatures decrease, LED performance rises. This makes LEDs an excellent choice for refrigerated display cases, freezers, and cold storage areas, as well as for outdoor applications such as parking lots, building perimeters, and signs. DOE testing of an LED refrigerated case light revealed a 5% increase in effectiveness (a light source’s efficiency measured in lumens per watt, or miles per gallon) at -5°C compared to 25°C operations.
4 | Durability
LEDs have no filaments or glass casings; thus, they are more resistant to breakage and vibrations than other types of light bulbs. This kind of lighting has a glass or quartz exterior that is vulnerable to damage. The soldered connections that link LEDs to a circuit board make them sensitive to direct impact, although this is no more of a concern than it is for mobile phones and other comparable compact electrical gadgets.
5 | Instant on
With most HID and fluorescent bulbs, it may take up to three minutes or more for them to achieve their peak brightness. LEDs, on the other hand, turn on at full brightness practically immediately and do not need a restrike wait. A power outage or early-morning opening of a facility might benefit from this feature since it can be difficult to see in the dark.
6 | Rapid cycling
Conventional light sources diminish over time when turned on and off often, however, LEDs are unaffected by fast cycling. Apart from blinking light displays, this property of LEDs makes them ideal for use with presence or lighting systems.
7 | Controllability
Making commercial fluorescent lights dimmable may cost more than a few dollars, whereas LEDs, being semiconductor devices, are intrinsically controllable. Certain LEDs can even be lowered to 10% of their maximum output, while conventional fluorescent lights reach 30% of their maximum brightness. Additionally, LEDs allow continuous dimming, as opposed to step-level dimming (where the shift from 100-to-10-percent light output is smooth and seamless, not tiered).
8 | No IR or UV Emissions
Only around 10% of the energy used by incandescent lamps is converted to visible light; the remainder is transferred to infrared (IR) or radiating heat. Excessive heat and ultraviolet (UV) rays provide a risk of burns to humans and objects. LEDs produce almost no infrared or ultraviolet light. Rapid breakthroughs in LED lighting technology, with further advancements on the horizon, have resulted in decreased LED prices and greater LED dependability. And, although it may be easy to assume that LEDs are the best option for all applications due to their energy efficiency, selection should be made based on several considerations, including light quality and dispersion, dimmability, and estimated lifespan.
BONUS | Intelligence
Nowadays, light is capable of much more than just illuminating our way. It can help us reduce our environmental footprint, improve the security of our surroundings, and increase the comfort and productivity of any interior area. Combining LED lighting with digital sensors and controls enables the development of more intelligent, achieving sustainability.
Color Without Compromise
According to Current, they have created a narrow-band red phosphor that improves LED and system effectiveness by a large margin over competing goods or systems, while also increasing CRI and R9. Reveal TriGainTM technology transforms everything, find out more.
Explore what’s possible with LED lighting from Current.
LED lighting is a great option if you require a light that can be turned on rapidly. LED lights may be activated and deactivated quickly. A metal halide lamp, for example, needs a warm-up time before use. Consider the way a fluorescent light flickers and takes two or three seconds to completely illuminate when you switch it on. LED lights may help alleviate some of these issues, as well as many others.
In addition, if you repeatedly turn on and off conventional lighting sources, your life will be shortened. Repetitive switching of LED lights does not impact their performance. It doesn’t shorten their lives or affect their performance in any way.
LEDs are perfect for businesses who require their lights to come back on promptly after a power outage or a power surge because of this capability. If you want your building’s lights to turn on as soon as a worker enters it in the morning before the sun rises, you may utilize this feature.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may be quickly cycled for flashing light displays or applications that need sensors that regularly turn on and off.
Indian LED Lighting Market 2021-2026:
In 2020, the Indian LED Lighting market is expected to reach a value of US$ 3.58 billion. Looking forward, IMARC Group forecasts that the market will expand at a 28.3 percent compound annual growth rate between 2021 and 2026. Keeping in mind the uncertainty surrounding COVID-19, we are regularly analyzing and assessing the pandemic’s direct and indirect impact on various end-use industries. These insights are featured in the study as a significant contribution to the market. Over the last many years, LED lights have established themselves as a significant source of illumination. They have rapidly acquired importance in the Indian lighting sector due to their multiple benefits over traditional lighting technology. Although the Indian LED lighting business is in its infancy, it promises an infinite number of development prospects over the next several decades. India, being one of the largest lighting markets, provides a profitable opportunity for LED manufacturers to establish operations in the area. A sustainable environment for the LED sector is created by skilled labor, ease of doing business, and demographic advantages.
Increasing Adopting of Energy Efficient Lighting Solutions
- The increased concern for the environment is influencing the LED lighting industry. Energy conservation has always been a top priority, and LED lighting is a great way to save energy.
- The Indian government has recently developed efficient energy efficiency initiatives aimed at developing an energy service industry. The government has started buying LED lights in quantity, which has helped the nation save electricity.
- In January 2020, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs announced that the country had installed over 361.3 million LED bulbs throughout the country and 10.3 million smart LED streetlights as part of the UJALA and LED Street Lighting National Program, which is expected to save over 6.97 billion kWh of energy per year. The International Energy Agency (IEA) also commended this development, stating that the country saw it as a chance for the federal and state governments to achieve widespread energy efficiency adoption.
- Additionally, the Rural Electrification Corporation Limited recently published a report indicating that over 72% of Indian households now have access to electricity. Additionally, the survey estimates that by the end of 2020, more than 94 percent of villages in India would have access to electricity. This is also projected to boost the country’s demand for household LED lighting.
Outdoor Application is Expected to Grow Significantly
- A considerable portion of the total power produced in the country is utilized for lighting purposes. As a result, the nation has been more focused on energy-efficient lighting solutions throughout the years. India’s government is also adopting measures, such as the Smart Cities program and the National LED Program. This is projected to increase the demand for outdoor LED lighting in the nation. The Bhopal Smart City project is one such example, with over 21,000 LED streetlights installed. The category is likely to expand aggressively in the next years because of ongoing infrastructure upgrades such as highways, airports, metro, and trains.
- As of January 2022, the Street Lighting National Program (SLNP) will have installed more than one million of the three million streetlights around the country. The project aims to save 6.71 billion kWh of energy annually, equating to a 4.63 million tons decrease in CO emissions. Additionally, SNLP intends to replace approximately 1.34 crore conventional streetlights in India with smart LEDs by March 2020.
- Additionally, a study provided by India’s Minister of Urban, and Housing Affairs indicate that 148 projects would be finished by January 2020 as part of the country’s Smart Cities Mission. Additionally, 407 projects have been launched, while another 237 are in the bidding stage.